Friday, August 31, 2012

Book on expertise

Ericsson, K.A., Charness, N., Feltovich, P.J., &  Hoffman, R. R. (Eds.) (2006). The Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Expert Performance. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

This book has 6 sections with 3 subsections in section 5 and a total of 42 chapters. I have summarised the sections with the most relevance but almost every chapter contains useful information. The book's main asset is the readability of each chapter along with the applied nature of most of the information.

Section 1 - introduction and perspective
Chapter 1 - an introduction to the book: its development organisation and content - K. A.Ericsson
Defines expertise and expert performance - page 3 and provides the historical evolution of studies in expertise - page 4

2 - Two approaches to the study of expert characteristics - M.T.H. Chi
Absolute and Relative approaches and summarises ways in which experts excel - pg 23 and ways in which experts fall short - pg 24.

3 - Expertise, talent and social encouragement - E. Hunt
 Proposes that different types of expertise, make different types of cognitive demands - pg 31

Section 2 - overview of approaches to the study of expertise - brief historical accounts of theories and methods

4. studies of expertise from psychological perspectives -P.J. Feltovich, M.J. Prietula &  K. A. Ericsson
Lists the generalisable characteristics of expertise - pg 46 --
limited in scope and elite performance does not transfer
knowledge and content matter are important to expertise
expertise involves larger and more integrated cognitive units
involves functional, abstracted representations of presented information
involves automated basic strokes
selective access of relevant information
involves reflection
is an adaptation

5. Educators and expertise: A brief history of theories and methods - R.J.Amirault & R.K. Branson
6. Expert systems : a perspective from computer science - B.G. Buchanan, R. Davis &  E.A. Feigenbaum
7. Professionalisation, scientific expertise and elitism: a sociological perspective -J.Evetts, H.A. Mieg & U.Felt
Above 3 chapters provide historical overviews on development and propose theorectical frameworks for study of expertise.

Section 3 - methods for studying the structure of expertise
8. observation of work practices in natural settings - W.J. Clancey
overview of how various methods have evolved - scientific observation in natural settings: visual anthropology. Details se of ethnomethodology's analytical perspective - 'learning to see'
**details units of analysis - pg 136 and methods of observation of natural settings -

9. Methods for studying the structure of expertise: Psychometric approaches - P.L. Ackerman & M.E.Beier
10. Laboratory methods for assessing experts' and novices' knowledge - M.T.H. Chi
Both above more aligned to quantitative methodologies.

11. Task analysis - J.M. Shraagen
Useful background and description of various approaches, for instance Miller - task description and task analysis, Flanagan - critical incident technique and hierarchical task analysis.
Provides 2 case studies - pg 193 - improving troubleshooting - pg 196 - shore-based pilotage - to illustrate how task analysis proceeds.

12. Eliciting and representing the knowledge of experts - R.R.Hoffman & G. Lintern
Presents methods for representing expert knowledge through cognitive task analysis CTA. including methods for critical decision model; work domain analysis; and concept mapping

13. Protocol analysis and expert thought: Concurrent verbalisations of thinking during experts' performance on representative tasks - K.A. Ericsson
Presents the pros and cons of this method.

14. Simulation for performance and training - P. Ward, A.M. Williams & P.A. Hancock
An overview.

Section 4 - methods for studying the acquisition and maintenance of expertise
15. Laboratory studies of training, skill acquisition and retention of performance - R. W. Proctor & K-P. L. Vu
16. Retrospective interviews in the study of expertise and expert performance - L.A. Sosniak
17. Time budgets, diaries, and analyses of concurrent practice activities - J.M. Deakin, J. Cote & A. S. Harvey
18. Histriometric methods -D.K. Simonton
All 4 chapters provide clear descriptions and some examples.

Section 5 - domains of expertise
5A - professional
19. Expertise in medicine and surgery - G.Norman, K. Eva, L. Brooks & S. Hamstra

20. Expertise and transportation -F.T. Durso & A.R. Dattel

21. Expertise in software design - S. Sonnetag, C. Niessen & J. Volmer

22. Professional writing expertise - R. T. Kellogg

23. Professional judgments and 'naturalistic decision making' - K.G. Ross, J.L. Shafer & G. Klein
NDM - requires - perceptual skill; mental modes; sense of typicality and associations; routines; declarative knowledge; mental simulation; assessing the situation; finding leverage points; managing uncertainty; and understanding one's own strengths and limitations (metacognition) - pg 405

24. Decision-making expertise - J.F. Yates & M.D. Tschirhart

25. The making of a dream team: when expert teams do best - E. Salas, M.A. Rosen, C. S. Burke, G.F. Goodwin & S. M. Fiore

5B - arts, sports and motor skills
26. music - A.C. Lehmann & H. Gruber

27. Expert performance in sport: A cognitive perspective - N.J. Hodges, J.L. Starkes & C. Mcmahon

28. Artistic performance:Acting, ballet and contemporary dance - H. Noice & T. Noice

29. Perceptual-motor expertise - D.A. Rosenbaum, J.S. Augustyn, R.G. Cohen & S.A. Jax

5C - games and other types of expertise
30. Expertise in chess - F. Gobet &  N. Charness

31. exceptional memory - J.M.Wilding &  E.R. Valentine

32. mathematical expertise - B. Butterworth

33. expertise in history - J.F. Voss & J. Wiley

section 6 - generalizable mechanisms mediating expertise and general issues
34. a merging theory of expertise and intelligence - J.Horn &  H. Masunaga

35. Tacit knowledge, practical intelligence and expertise - A. T. Cianciolo, C. Matthews, R.J. Sternberg & R.K. Wagner
Definitions of tacit knowledge - pg 615 and practical intelligence pg 616

36. Expertise and situation awareness - M.R. Endsley

37. Brain changes in the development of expertise: Neuroanatomical and neurophysiological evidence about skill-based adaptations - N.M. Hill & W. Schneider
themes in learning literature on brain processing and brain structure - pg 658
learning is localised and very specialised
learning and processing occur in the same cortical locations
learning can produce both increases and decreases in the areas of activity
in some tasks there is a shifting between brain regions
relevant info/objects and other stimuli are uniquely processed by experts (e.g. birds by bird watchers)
learning can produce detectable morphological changes
motor areas can rapidly change as a result of skilled movement practivce and improved performance - pg 671
notable for plastic change with extensive experience and practice

38. The influence of experience and deliberate practice on the development of superior expert performance - K.A. Ericsson
** details the work on delibrate practice

39. Development and adaptation of expertise: Role of self-regulatory processes and beliefs - B.J. Zimmerman

40. aging and expertise - R.T. Krampe & N. Charness

41. Social and sociological factors in the development of expertise - H.A. Mieg

42. Modes of expertise in creative thinking: evidence from case studies - R.W. Weisberg

All in, much or relevance to pick up in this book. It does have a good range of chapters covering the current state of learning on expertise.

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