Friday, August 31, 2012

Book on expertise

Ericsson, K.A., Charness, N., Feltovich, P.J., &  Hoffman, R. R. (Eds.) (2006). The Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Expert Performance. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

This book has 6 sections with 3 subsections in section 5 and a total of 42 chapters. I have summarised the sections with the most relevance but almost every chapter contains useful information. The book's main asset is the readability of each chapter along with the applied nature of most of the information.

Section 1 - introduction and perspective
Chapter 1 - an introduction to the book: its development organisation and content - K. A.Ericsson
Defines expertise and expert performance - page 3 and provides the historical evolution of studies in expertise - page 4

2 - Two approaches to the study of expert characteristics - M.T.H. Chi
Absolute and Relative approaches and summarises ways in which experts excel - pg 23 and ways in which experts fall short - pg 24.

3 - Expertise, talent and social encouragement - E. Hunt
 Proposes that different types of expertise, make different types of cognitive demands - pg 31

Section 2 - overview of approaches to the study of expertise - brief historical accounts of theories and methods

4. studies of expertise from psychological perspectives -P.J. Feltovich, M.J. Prietula &  K. A. Ericsson
Lists the generalisable characteristics of expertise - pg 46 --
limited in scope and elite performance does not transfer
knowledge and content matter are important to expertise
expertise involves larger and more integrated cognitive units
involves functional, abstracted representations of presented information
involves automated basic strokes
selective access of relevant information
involves reflection
is an adaptation

5. Educators and expertise: A brief history of theories and methods - R.J.Amirault & R.K. Branson
6. Expert systems : a perspective from computer science - B.G. Buchanan, R. Davis &  E.A. Feigenbaum
7. Professionalisation, scientific expertise and elitism: a sociological perspective -J.Evetts, H.A. Mieg & U.Felt
Above 3 chapters provide historical overviews on development and propose theorectical frameworks for study of expertise.

Section 3 - methods for studying the structure of expertise
8. observation of work practices in natural settings - W.J. Clancey
overview of how various methods have evolved - scientific observation in natural settings: visual anthropology. Details se of ethnomethodology's analytical perspective - 'learning to see'
**details units of analysis - pg 136 and methods of observation of natural settings -

9. Methods for studying the structure of expertise: Psychometric approaches - P.L. Ackerman & M.E.Beier
10. Laboratory methods for assessing experts' and novices' knowledge - M.T.H. Chi
Both above more aligned to quantitative methodologies.

11. Task analysis - J.M. Shraagen
Useful background and description of various approaches, for instance Miller - task description and task analysis, Flanagan - critical incident technique and hierarchical task analysis.
Provides 2 case studies - pg 193 - improving troubleshooting - pg 196 - shore-based pilotage - to illustrate how task analysis proceeds.

12. Eliciting and representing the knowledge of experts - R.R.Hoffman & G. Lintern
Presents methods for representing expert knowledge through cognitive task analysis CTA. including methods for critical decision model; work domain analysis; and concept mapping

13. Protocol analysis and expert thought: Concurrent verbalisations of thinking during experts' performance on representative tasks - K.A. Ericsson
Presents the pros and cons of this method.

14. Simulation for performance and training - P. Ward, A.M. Williams & P.A. Hancock
An overview.

Section 4 - methods for studying the acquisition and maintenance of expertise
15. Laboratory studies of training, skill acquisition and retention of performance - R. W. Proctor & K-P. L. Vu
16. Retrospective interviews in the study of expertise and expert performance - L.A. Sosniak
17. Time budgets, diaries, and analyses of concurrent practice activities - J.M. Deakin, J. Cote & A. S. Harvey
18. Histriometric methods -D.K. Simonton
All 4 chapters provide clear descriptions and some examples.

Section 5 - domains of expertise
5A - professional
19. Expertise in medicine and surgery - G.Norman, K. Eva, L. Brooks & S. Hamstra

20. Expertise and transportation -F.T. Durso & A.R. Dattel

21. Expertise in software design - S. Sonnetag, C. Niessen & J. Volmer

22. Professional writing expertise - R. T. Kellogg

23. Professional judgments and 'naturalistic decision making' - K.G. Ross, J.L. Shafer & G. Klein
NDM - requires - perceptual skill; mental modes; sense of typicality and associations; routines; declarative knowledge; mental simulation; assessing the situation; finding leverage points; managing uncertainty; and understanding one's own strengths and limitations (metacognition) - pg 405

24. Decision-making expertise - J.F. Yates & M.D. Tschirhart

25. The making of a dream team: when expert teams do best - E. Salas, M.A. Rosen, C. S. Burke, G.F. Goodwin & S. M. Fiore

5B - arts, sports and motor skills
26. music - A.C. Lehmann & H. Gruber

27. Expert performance in sport: A cognitive perspective - N.J. Hodges, J.L. Starkes & C. Mcmahon

28. Artistic performance:Acting, ballet and contemporary dance - H. Noice & T. Noice

29. Perceptual-motor expertise - D.A. Rosenbaum, J.S. Augustyn, R.G. Cohen & S.A. Jax

5C - games and other types of expertise
30. Expertise in chess - F. Gobet &  N. Charness

31. exceptional memory - J.M.Wilding &  E.R. Valentine

32. mathematical expertise - B. Butterworth

33. expertise in history - J.F. Voss & J. Wiley

section 6 - generalizable mechanisms mediating expertise and general issues
34. a merging theory of expertise and intelligence - J.Horn &  H. Masunaga

35. Tacit knowledge, practical intelligence and expertise - A. T. Cianciolo, C. Matthews, R.J. Sternberg & R.K. Wagner
Definitions of tacit knowledge - pg 615 and practical intelligence pg 616

36. Expertise and situation awareness - M.R. Endsley

37. Brain changes in the development of expertise: Neuroanatomical and neurophysiological evidence about skill-based adaptations - N.M. Hill & W. Schneider
themes in learning literature on brain processing and brain structure - pg 658
learning is localised and very specialised
learning and processing occur in the same cortical locations
learning can produce both increases and decreases in the areas of activity
in some tasks there is a shifting between brain regions
relevant info/objects and other stimuli are uniquely processed by experts (e.g. birds by bird watchers)
learning can produce detectable morphological changes
motor areas can rapidly change as a result of skilled movement practivce and improved performance - pg 671
notable for plastic change with extensive experience and practice

38. The influence of experience and deliberate practice on the development of superior expert performance - K.A. Ericsson
** details the work on delibrate practice

39. Development and adaptation of expertise: Role of self-regulatory processes and beliefs - B.J. Zimmerman

40. aging and expertise - R.T. Krampe & N. Charness

41. Social and sociological factors in the development of expertise - H.A. Mieg

42. Modes of expertise in creative thinking: evidence from case studies - R.W. Weisberg

All in, much or relevance to pick up in this book. It does have a good range of chapters covering the current state of learning on expertise.

Friday, August 24, 2012

Cpit research month 24 august

Cpit research month 24 August

A range of presentations from department of humanities and academic division presented today, starting at 11. 20am and progressing to 2.40 pm. I and to miss some of the lunch time presentations from Te puna wanaga as I had a focus group to conduct for Another project.

First up, Libby Gawith presents on " Christchurch and how we are coping with our earthquakes" based on recently published paper. Canterbury was unexpected, lasted a long time, impacted a large area. Apart from aftershocks also coping with physical financial and workload pressures at home, work, through the community and across social networks. We are now in the restoration and reconstruction phrase requiring long term resilience. 2.6% population lost, divorce rattle up, births down and increased flu admissions. There is still uncertainty and worry. New behaviors due to experiences. Recovery means retuning to normal can be difficult. Rebuilt and positive focus important.

I then presented on the net tablet project " situated technology enhanced learning: using net tablets to help students construct their own eworkbooks".

Hemi Hoskins presented on progress with his masters studies. He uses hunting as a context to study the changes in Maori language. How old terms related to hunting and gathering in pre-European times. How the language had to form new terms for new huntingmprocesss, cultural changes and how language evolves to cope with change plus integration and synthesis etween old words and new uses for the.

A group presentation followed from tutors and students to model the teaching and learning approaches at Te Puna Wanaka. Included revitalisation on kiorahi (a traditional ball game)to learn language; a brief overview of how students and staff used the disruption and relocation to a different learning environment /the concepts of Ako, whanuanga, mana whenua, mana tangata, mana atua ; plus transference of knowledge through waiata and through leadership and personal knowledge.

Dr. Sandra Arnold then reflected on the writing of her book " sing no sad songs" with "writing as catharsis". A creative writing study as part of her PhD detailing her experiences of the death of her daughter from cancer 10 years ago. The power of language to assist with the integration of thoughts and feelings the articulate sorrow on the death of a loved one.

Kerstin Dofs presented on the ongoing project - some supported by Ako Aotearoa, learning and growing as learners : innovative use of strategy instruction to enhance language education. An approach based on developing a set of resources in the form of student work books and tutor guides to encourage self directed and life long learning with students learning English as a second other language.

Martin Jenkins and I then presented findings from the ako Aotearoa project " institutional strategies to support forced change". This is one of several commissioned by Ako Aotearoa in the wake of last year's earthquakes. A summary ofthe experiences of our staff and students through a tumultuous 2011 as a result of the earthquakes.

The last session was with Martin, Robin Graham, Julie Batchelor and Denise Holling with their summaries of presentations from the recent HERDSA conference. A range of presentations on student support, evaluations, student centred learning, assessments and feedback.

Wednesday, August 22, 2012

LAMs (learning activity management) with professor James Dalziel

Professor Dalziel is professor of learning technology and director of the elearning centre of excellence at the Macquarie university in Sydney. He presented on the topic "pedagogy for the 21st century".

Covered new approaches to teaching and learning, technology and learning, what is learning design? A case study round LAMs and relations between learning and curriculum design.

Argued that lectures are not evil as there are many ways to create lively lectures and have a role in summarizing a range of knowledge and provide forum for cutting edge knoweldgento be disseminated by experts.

Due to explosion of 'new' knowledge there is less reliance on memory but greater need to gain skills in finding, sifting and critiquing knowledge.

Advocates the 'start at the end' approach to learning design i.e. from graduate outcomes /profiles / attributes. Plus focus on skills like teamwork, critical thinking, effective communication, problem solving, collaboration etc. with shift to 'flipped classroom'.

Need for alignment between taught knowledge, teaching and learning methods, development of practical skills, assessment do knowledge and skills and the desirable attribute of graduates.

Used problem based learning in the training of medical doctor as an example of how change in teaching practice provides graduates with work ready skills.

Elearning has unfortunately not made much impact on pedagogy. Learning design has potential through providing students with a sequence of learning activities and a way for lecturers to describe and effectively share teaching ideas. Learning design could include a framework or language to structure learning activities, software system, community of educators and process educators go through to structure learning. It is Not an educational theory, still immature, a small field and should not be reliant on technology.

LAMs ( learning activity management) is a Tool for teacher to plan and run lessons. Each lesson can be seamlessly linked vi moodle to existing LMS. LAMs is open source and now used in 80 plus countries by thousands do educators. Uses templates like - predict, observe, explain; to lay out lessons.

Overall a good summary of some of the focuses now used at CPIT through support the Centre for Educational Development (CED) provides to teaching and academic staff. Not too sure if LAMs will assist the process of constructive alignment but for some staff, the structure provided in templates may be helpful, especially for those just starting out teaching. The important follow up to having classes laid out in LAMs is to ensure there is still a reflective dialogue with students, peers and learning designers to ensure that classes are organic/dynamic as content shifts, student profiles change and learning outcomes are updated. So classes in LAMs are 'work in progress' with clear pedagogical rational provided for selection of various learning /teaching strategies and a cycle of review based on reflective practice is also adopted.

Tuesday, August 21, 2012

Christchurch research month 21 August presentations

Teaching and learning for technology is the theme for today 's lunch time presentations from department of engineering and the trade innovation institute.

Dr. Yao Li begins with a presentation on the power of Android. Introduced Android including architecture and apps and potential uses for teaching. Android now up to 4.1x called jellybean. Up to 2.3 only on cell phones, from 3.0 honeycomb for tablet only and latest two icecream sandwich and jellybean on both tablets and phones. Architecture has Linux kernel with access to libraries. Apps have 4 components, activities, services, content providers and broadcast receiver. Teaching Android programming with a focus on engineering. Opportunities for research include real-time performance, security, power efficiency and interface with Android accessories including multimeters, oscilloscopes etc.

Dave Maples then presents on "power systems 1 by distance" . Teaching the course with students located at two campuses using Abode Connect And the smart podium. The smart podium used as a whiteboard. Important to preload all teaching material prior to session And have screens pre configured, prepare for session failure - use the chat window, exchange material on cell phone. Should be used in conjunction with Moodle not to replace. Word files need to be PDF and multimedia files as flv. In general students found learning to be possible.

Flip Leijten unble to present, so I presented his findings from the peer learning project, a continuation on a small project (peer learning with welding students) while working on using videos to study trades based learning. Flip's study extended the peer learning intervention to carpentry, electrical and painting and decorating students.

Friday, August 17, 2012

Christchurch polytechnic research month 16 August presentations

This afternoon, a series of presentations from the departments of science (sports and fitness) and broadcasting provide a nice mix of quantitative and qualitative approaches along with food for thought.

Dr. Nick Kimber presents on "health and performance supplementation through using antioxidants" focused on an interim literature review for application into a range of future projects. Athletes seem to have a belief that normal diet does not supply them with the required dietary needs of a elite training programme. However, many athletes ( in USA studies) gain information on use od supplements via informal means - friends, family, Internet etc. Nick provided N introduction to antioxidants and their importance in normal health and well being. In general, antioxidants should be sufficient from well constructed diet and supplementation contribution to enhanced performance still unclear.

Dr. Peter Olsen presents on a study undertaken during the rugby world cup last year studying heart rates while viewing sports. Study of spectators watching on TV and stadium compared. Generally heart rate at stadium higher than at home, heart rate higher when NZ playing and patterns consistent with increase in heart rate whenever any crucial play occurs.

Tina Ryan provides an overview of "athlete career development in NZ" as a summary of a study for her PhD. Provided example that NZ put 180 million into 2012 Olympics there development costs. In addition individual athletes also put in much that needs to also be costed. 2001 Graham report established SPARC and NZAS to encourage high performance sport development through performance based funding and athlete carding system (to track and support individuals with free sport science and medical support). 17 carded athletes from 8 sports interviewed to find out their perspectives. Themes included gratitude; expectations to perform and conform; and need to provide athletes with personal development opportunities beyond sports.

Dr. John Farnsworth presents on " new technologies and the Christchurch earthquakes". Studied how city assembled and disassembled in the face of change and the popular urban voice and presence in the lived city, similar themes studied in how economic, political and technological change takes place within socio technical assemblages. As city recovers from earthquakes,social networking and other forms of media discourse contribute towards how the individuals perceive effects. Used film "when a city falls" as example as being form of visual ethnography to uncover themes of how we view impacts on people and how a future city is imagined out of unplanned / unforeseen event.

Dr. Ruth Zanker discussed the question " is Sky (NZ pay TV) out of control in the NZ media ecology?" presented on the dominance of Sky in the market and the consequences of this on diversity of perspectives and viewpoints NZers have or not have access to. Has almost 50% of market and bought free to air channel Prime in 2006 thus increasing it's reach.

I had missed presentations from these two departments in the past, so good to catch up on the research activity that has been going on and to hear progress on projects.

Wednesday, August 15, 2012

Cpit research month Tuesday 14th

Lunch time presentations from Department of Business and Department of Computing under the theme of enterprise and innovation.

John O'Sullivan presents on part of his PhD with "using enterprise development stories to understand and encourage Maori entrepreneurship". An interesting use of narrative to explore how different cultures' view mainstream organisational processes. Narratives are apt for use in the project's context as stories are important in oral knowledge cultures. Keegan and Woods (2006) Arrived at key concepts of mauipreneurship by analyzing stories of Maui. John's project undertook interviews with contemporary Maori entrepreneurs to find out if themes would reflect mauipreneurship.

Second presentation with Dr. Juan Pellegrino on "strategy, learning and knowledge in the internationalization process: a comparative study of NZ incremental and early-internationalization SMEs". DefinedSMEs as companies between 6 to 99 employees ( NZ uses under 20). Internationalization literature indicates firms are either born- global or move into international markets incrementally. Study to try to understand how each type of firm goes about learning how to internationalise. Multiple data analysis used to produce comparative case studies.

Dr. Mehdi Asgarkhani from the department of computing presented on " research matters: information systems and IT in business". IT has evolved from being a financial system tool to becoming information management and as enabler to almost every business process within and beyond company's physical parameters. IT personnel no longer just technicians but also contribute to business strategy decisions. changes include rise of social media, IT need to create return on investment and increased consciousness of sustainability.

Tuesday, August 14, 2012

Cpit research month - Monday 13th - Computing presentations

Department of computing has 3 presentations lunch time yesterday.

Alison Clear on the topic of "creating international research opportunities" discussing strategies and networking opportunities for collaborative research to be undertaken. Covered the 'state' of international computing educational research and that in computing, conferences are main dissemination method rather than journals. Introduced Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Research (ITiCSE) has one forum. Working groups are the main method for collaboration whereby academics propose topics, then group participants are selected (through refereed process), work before conference and then have f2f meeting in 2 days before and across 3 days of conference to write a paper to be submitted as a draft at the end of the conference.

Dr. Ed Correia presents on "virtualization: the future". Presented on the virtual environment used at cpit called techlabs. Used to provide students with a realistic platform to complete projects and learning activities. Resource has been progressively built over several years. Presented on current limitations and plans to work through the technical challenges presented by these.

Armit Sarkar and team (Dr. Mike Lance & Mike Lopez ) on "improvements in teaching software engineering" Mike Lance discussed models including learning models. How are models of learning useful? And are models actually of relevance? Mike Lopez proposes to look at how students come to think computationally with one approach to investigate how students come up with misconceptions/alternaive viewpoints and what it takes for them to unravel their misunderstandings and move back onto the right track. Armit then presented on using loops and patterns to helping students learn programming concepts. A teaching resource produced to help novice programmers learn the different ways loops behave.

Friday, August 10, 2012

CPIT research month - student presentations / pitches

Have been able to get to the lunch time presentation yesterday and today featuring students 'pitching' their projects. A wonderful and eclectic collection of 3 minute presentations reinforces the diverse nature of the disciplines and subject areas here at CPIT. Presentations were from students studying in their Batchelor's programmes (usually in their third year) and from students complete post-graduate certificates. We had presentations from students in languages (Japanese, Maori); Science; Engineering, Recreation, Broadcasting and Business.

Topics included:
- lost of Japanese dialects in Hiroshima
- consequences of 'forced adoption' of Maori children in the past and how to assist these students to reconnect with their family ties and roots (whakapapa).
- the development of a life cycle tool for the assessment of the manufacturing cycle to improve sustainable production, sale and recycling
- a coffee bean roaster temperature gauge that also collects other sensory attributes important to the roasting process
- a 'mobile safety trading unit' that can be brought out to replace a physical retail space should the space be put out of action (e.g. earthquakes in Chch.)
- evaluation of the efficacy of e-cigarettes as an alternative to other forms of nicotine replacement
- study of chorophyll degration in 3000 year old matai (NZ native tree) leaves
- the effectiveness of a cryopreservation process on micro-organisms used in microbiology
- connections to the natural environment, perceptions of hearing and sight impaired and/or disabled people
- why and how we form attachments with the outdoors
- role of assessments in the outdoors when certifying outdoor instructors
- value of surfing- surfing as a medium of play
- youth involvement in sustainability - how they become involved/engaged and why
- how is controversy used as a public relations/marketing tool by the media

Student project pitches are judged by a panel for innovation and presentation. Three $$ prizes are offered as an incentive and it was good to see a wide range of students presenting this year.

Monday, August 06, 2012

Cpit research month day one afternoon

Five presentations this afternoon with the theme of 'Teaching and Learning in Practice' from research staff in the Department of Human Services and Nursing. Dr. Jane Maidment introduced the session.

First up, Raewyn Tudor on 'social work and community development in schools' part of Raewyn's Masters in Social Work studies. What are schools? Study based on increased interest in bringing community-based social support into schools through forming social work hubs in schools. Focus of the project to find out 'how useful is social work and community work in facilitating better community development' and 'what skills social workers need to work with schools'. Using Bourdieu's theory of practice as a theoretical framework.

Next Anna Richardson presents on 'inter-professional learning and working: Public health nurses and economic genograms' -- using the 15 minute interview model with public health nurses and families: a collaborative educative research project. A project led by Dr. Judy Yarwood. Presentation provided on the context of public health inNZ who work autonomously school clinics and home visiting. 15 minute interview includes manners, therapeutic conversations/questions and commendations using family ecomaps and genograms. Ecomap shows family connections/relationships and outside resources used and genogram shows generations including health issues, ethnicity and occupation. Using these tools help public nurses build better relationships and obtain pertinent information efficiently. Ecograms are ecomaps and genograms together to increase effectiveness.

Then, a presentation from Dominic Chilvers and Jane Maidment (plus Yvonne Crichton-Hill from University of Canterbury) on 'promoting learning and teaching about research through collaborative work integrated learning: implications for students agencies and practitioners'. Project came about with acknowledgement that social work practitioners and students lack confidence with research. Use field education as a way to bring students into research. Students involved with projects already going out in their work placements. Project tracked students as the placement progressed. Pre- and post placement research knowledge and confidence survey and individual interviews undertaken along with researcher journal observations. Resources were developed (teaching cards and DVDs) to support the learning of research at both CPIT and UC.

Mel Leinert-Brown on 'exploring undergraduate nursing students' experiences of their first clinical placement in an acute adult mental health inpatient-service: Learning from reflection'. Presented a project that has just started with the rationale for needing to study this area and progress undertaken through the literature review phrase.

Final presentation for the day, Deborah Sims and Rose Whittle on 'researching and using CLES+T: A New Zealand perspective. CLES+T refers to -clinical learning environment, supervision and nurse teacher a scale developed in Finland as part of Mikko Saarikoski's PhD and now also used internationally. The survey useful as CPIT has started using Dedicated Education Units (DEU) for student placements and of interest to find out NZ context data - involving 10 schools of nursing.

Cpit research month 2012 opens

The annual research week now a research month. An interesting range of projects are being presented from today to Tuesday 28th August. Most of the sessions will run across lunch time each day, so I will take notes and post on to blog as I am able to attend since I will be fitting the various activities around the usual work commitments.

Today, at lunch time, the month is officially opened firstly by Dr. Margaret Leonard, CPIT research manager and Kay Giles, CPIT CEO. Kay spoke of the importance of doing research in the areas we have strengths in; connecting with industry and assisting with informing industry on innovations; and using research to update and keep us fresh in our teaching.

A presentation by Dr. Mark Quigley from University of Canterbury, provides a topical beginning to research months over 60 plus presentations (including several other Christchurch earthquake focused ones). Mark presented on 'The seismic story of us: Ongoing research into the Canterbury earthquakes'. Provided a flavour of the range of projects UC is currently involved in to study and understand why/how the earthquake occurred. For instance the probable 8 faults that started things going in Sept. 2010. He presented on - what controls the volume and spatial extent of liquefaction ejecta in major earthquakes; how the earthquake faults behave; and the paleoseismology of the Canterbury plains/Chch. historically. A really interesting presentation of the science underlying the event tempered by Marks' personal experiences as much of the data was gathered in his own backyard of his now red-zoned home.

The first staff presentation is from Andrew Massie, who blogged extensively at the beginning of 2011 about his experiences while on academic study leave with Connectics - a cable jointing company undertaking extensive repairs to Christchurch electrical supply after the February 2011 earthquakes. Andrew presents on 'High voltage academic study leave during the Chch.earthquakes'. With an hour to present, Andrew could extend on his presentation by providing details on the methods he used to collect the photos/videos etc. archived on his blog and provide background details of the cable jointing process before launching into the effect the earthquake had on the electrical supply infrastructure and the processes required to repair.

In the afternoon, presentations from the Department of Nursing and Human Services with a selection of industry, work placement and teaching/learning projects.