Monday, March 20, 2017

Future of Ubiquitous learning - book overview

Worked through this book last week, Future of Ubiquitous learning: Learning designs for emergingpedagogies.
Edited by B. Gros, Kinshuk and M.Maina and published 2015 by Springer.

The book is available as an ebook via the Ara library.

Timely book to inform on e-assessments project and the learning design work which makes up a large part of my present work. The book provides direction for the future of learning design as traditional models, based on constructivist / or even behavourist/instructivist models, are no longer pertinent as the education is challenged to assist learners to be sufficiently prepared for the future of work. 

The book has 14 chapters organised into 3 parts.
Part 1 – foundations of emerging technologies had 5 chapters
An introductory chapter ‘the dialogue between emerging pedagogies and emerging technologies’ is by B. Gros and sets the scene for the book and provides overviews of each chapter. Some of the changes: learner-centred, individual and social learning; personalised and tailor-made learning; innovative pedagogical concepts – experiential and immersive learning and social and cognitive process; formal institutions will need to be flexible and dynamic; and education and training made available and accessible to all citizens. Introduces the emerging theories of learning: theories focused on the network (networked learning, connectivism, actor-network theory); theories focused on social-personal interaction (heutagogy, peerology); and theories focused on the design of network (Learning as a Network – LaaN). ). LaaN combines aspects of connectivism, complexity theory and double-loop learning. Learning is envisaged to be a personal network of knowledge attained through interactions with the ‘ecological’ spheres of learning. Hence ‘emerging pedagogies are held to: support lifelong learning and ecologies of learning; use different forms of knowledge; integrate the use of technology as ‘mindtools’; change the nature of the traditional roles of teacher and learner; integrate self-regulation, co-regulation and social share regulation; promote deep learning tasks; are transparent; based on socio-constructivists pedagogies; and require new forms of assessment.

Chapter 2 overviews principles of “heutagogy: a holistic framework for creating 21st century self-determined learners’ by L M. Blashke and S. Haase. Introduces, defines heutagogy as a form of self-determined learning and rationalises it as a holistic, learning-centred approach. Characteristics are learner-centred and determined; based on capability, self-reflection and metacognition; allows for double-loop learning along with nonlinear learning and teaching. Presents the affordances for heutagogy as availed by digital technologies. The heutagogy learning ‘loop’ cycles through / touches base with activities to explore, create, collaborate, connect, share and reflect.

P. B. Sloep contributes the next chapter on ‘design fornetworked learning’. Networked learning is defined as learning using computer networks for educational activity. Uses the distinctions between epistemic, social and set design to guide the design of networked learning. Critiques the process and suggests improvements. Epistemic design involves ensuring learning activities are aligned to the achievement of learning outcomes. Uses Laurillard’s work – design patterns for learning – as a frame complete the epistemic design. Social design is based on socio-cultural learning theories including the work of Brown and Duiguid – the social life of information and Lave and Wenger’s communities of practice. Set design includes the selection of appropriate tools to support epistemic and social design. It is essential these tools are used in a holistic manner, so the various ‘elements’ of learning are connected and assist self-directed (heutological) learning.

Chapter 4 is on ‘why do we want data for learning? Learninganalytics and the laws of media’ by E.D. Gazulla and T. Leinonen. Provides theoretical and analytical understanding and discusses pros and cons. Of note is the connection between LA and the types of pedagogies that can be supported. Examples include analytics to support learning through the use of social networking, discourse, content learning, dispositional learning and student centred approaches. The proviso is to ensure the correct type of LA is used to support the appropriate learning approach. Mis-match leads to invalid data being used to support decision making!

The fifth chapter is on ‘articulating personal pedagogies through learning ecologies’ with M. F. Maina and I.G. Gonzalez. Proposes learning ecologies as one way to explore ‘frontier’ pedagogies to connect the formal, non-formal and informal learning contexts of individuals. The chapter provides background on the evolution of learning ecologies including personal learning ecologies. Presently, attempts to match the needs of individual’s learning to the offerings of ‘mass education’ have been disappointing. Moving to personal learning environments (PLEs) requires large shifts in how education is valued, measured, accreditated etc. PLEs implies learners use their self-direction to learning through all spheres of their lives, through formal, ‘informal, networked, socially-connected means. Having to ‘measure’ these, and whether this is the way to go, requires investigation and rationalisation. Chapter 6 provides some ideas.

Part 2 covers learning design for emerging technologies with 5 chapters
N. S. Selander contributes with chapter 6 on ‘conceptualization of multimodal and distributed design for learning’. The chapter describes the shifting from SYSTEM 1 (stable structures, national curricula, classroom teaching, printed school textbooks and assessment standards) to SYSTEM2 (dynamic (global change), development of digitized media, cognitive systems, mobile learning and individual learning from 2000 onwards. SYSTEM 2 requires the development of a new paradigm for the future curriculum, including new ways to recognise learning and need for new assessment practices (and standards); need to account for and understand learning in relation to multimodal design; and the role of digital media in organisation of school work at scale.
Current theories of learning founded on SYSTEM 1. Proposes the use of ‘learning design sequences’ as a basic unit of learning. LDL model – Learning design sequences – see this article for further details.

Chapter 7 by A. Littlejohn and L. McGill covers ‘ecologies of open resources and pedagogies of abundance’. Presents analysis of diverse pedagogies enabling learners to capitalise on digital, open resources. The emphasis is not on the content but on helping learners to create and navigate their own pathways. This is a modern take on ‘constructivism’ with good examples of how to leverage off the ease of access to open resources and how learning can be designed to make the most of the affordances availed.

The next chapter discusses ‘educational design and construction: processes and technologies’ by S. McKenney and T. C. Reeves. Comprehensive chapter which provides a range of learning design approaches to deal with the present and future challenging learning environment. Design through exploring and mapping and construction of solutions is covered. This chapter provides the ‘how do we get from design’ to actually implementing the solution. Strategies for idea generation (synectics, SCAMPER, Slip writing, picture taking) followed by how to consider the idea (Dr Bono’s hats, courtroom challenges, SWOT analysis, weighted ranking) and idea checking using logic modelling. The solution mapping involves refining design, using skeleton design and constructing the detailed design specifications. Initial solution building includes management of the prototyping process using assistance form project management tools – critical path, gannt charts, milestone map, Rasci matrix followed by evaluation of iterations and consideration of revisions. Outputs of the entire exercise include the need to record and synthesise frameworks.

‘User-centred design: supporting learning designs’ versioning in a community platform’ is by J. Chacon-Perez, D. Hernandez-Leo, Y. Mor and J. I. Asensio-Perez. Reports on a project whereby a community platform called Integrated Learning Design Environment (ILDE) is used to share and assist with co-editing of resources and activities for implementation into learning programmes. Represents a ‘worked-example’ case study genre. Many of the ideas presented in the preceding chapters are used in the ILDE.

Chapter 10 by F. Pozzi, J. I. Asensio-Perez and D. Persico is on ‘the case for multiple representations in the learning design life cycle’. As per chapter 9, chapter 10 reports on a project. The project uses visualisation to assist with learning design across time. Principles of multimodality are applied and used across both the approaches deployed in the learning design and in how the overall learning design process is recorded for later evaluation and analysis. Of importance is the assertion that ‘one size does not fit all’ and the use of the ‘life cycle’ as a guide, not a framework set in concrete.

The last part is on adaptive and personalised learning with 4 chapters

Chapter 11 covers ‘measurement of quality of a course: analysis of analytics’ by J. Seanosky et al. Recommends not just the evaluation of courses at the end through learner feedback, but continually, formatively and summatively, using factors across learner motivation, learner capacity, learners’ increasing competency and instructor competency.

The next chapter by T. Zarraonandia, P. Diaz and I. Aedo is on ‘modeling games for adaptive and personalised learning’. Of interest to those incorporating elements of gamification into learning design. The chapter provides a good overview and discusses ways to ensure games are developed to allow for personalised learning to flourish.

Chapter 13 is by I. A. Zualkernan who discusses ‘personalised learning for the developing world’. Introduces various models supporting the development of PLE type educational programmes for developing countries. Acknowledges the difference in resource and access between the developed and developing contexts and provides some ideas to assist with circumventing challenges.

Last chapter is by A. Alun on ‘understanding cognitive profiles in designing personalised learning environments. Describes the use of neuropsychological tests’ potential to determine learners’ cognitive profiles and how these can be applied to better understanding and designing programmes based on personalised learning environments. Perhaps a chapter that could have gone earlier into the book. This chapter uses neurological / cognitive characteristics to assist with the design of PLEs. Takes on the view of ‘know the learner’ and matched to better way to present learning so learner is able to access. Various neuropsychological tests detailed. Discusses how we all deal with attention, memory, navigate through information etc. differently. Proposes future work on harnessing the individual’s ‘ways of doing’ to help enhance / mediate / support their learning.

All in, the book rewards for time put into reading the many chapters. Each chapter brings with it an approach to learning design that is supported and informed by previous scholarly works and supplemented by projects in the field. My challenge is to tease out the items which are relevant to our work at Ara. Given the diversity of discipline areas and levels of learning within Ara, there will be congruence between some of the theories described in the various chapters, and the graduate profiles / learning outcomes required. Will need to read through the salient chapters to identify the approaches which we can use or adapt. 

Monday, March 13, 2017

What makes us uniquely human - role of vocational education

 ‘Super artificial intelligences (AI)’ are currently able to churn through vast amounts of data to create solutions. Used in tandem with other digital tools including embedded chips in other machines, humans and appliances (i.e. the internet of things), AI has and is set to replace blue and white collar workers. AI will be installed in machines, turning them into automated ‘robots’, self-drive vehicles, automatic stock control ‘containers’ and self-repairing appliances.

 One perspective is dire. 46% of the current jobs in NZ are predicted to disappear or be significantly changed due to effects of technology. (see NZ Labour party website set up to discuss future of work as an example).

The other, and in my humble opinion, more realistic scenario, is that new jobs will be created and current jobs will be transformed. History supports this perspective. When work in certain sectors become scarce, people move on into other types of work. These new types of work would have become necessary to support the technology that removed the original work itself! (see this article from Forbes for more detailed discussion)

A recent bbc article also supports the above. There are some things, currently still uniquely human, that cannot yet be replicated by machines.

We are now back to the challenges presented to education by the rapidly shifting demands of the world's workforce and economies. Change in education moves ever so slowly. Debates have swung backs and forths as to whether 'Learning Transfer' occurs easily, whereby individuals trained in specialists vocations are able to switch into another (preferably) related job, if their current work disappears. There is the spectre of 'near' and 'far' transfer and for some educationalists', the argument is for very little transfer!

So where does that leave the individual? Continual life-long learning is a given but what of continually retraining to on and on to try to fit into continually changing work? Who bears the costs? the individual? the organisation? the country's educational system? A shared responsibility is the key. It will be interesting to see the final iteration of the 'productivity commission report on tertiary education'. The final report is due out late February but it looks like it is going to be slightly late. The draft sent out for submissions raised more questions than recommended solutions :)

All above important for educational developers to be cognisant on. The 'new' programmes of study we are now working on need to reflect the challenges presented for development of the 'future workforce'. 

Monday, March 06, 2017

The Originals - what makes original thinkers

Had a quick look through this TEd talk by Adam Grant - who is a professor at Wharton. The talk summarise Grant's book - The Originals. There is a summary / review at the following Forbes site.

The overall premise of Grant's work, as summarised in the Ted Talks is how to recognise the difference between innovators and followers.

In short:

- innovators may be slow to get off the ground. They are the ultimate procrastinators.Procrastination may be used to mull over ideas and come to better solutions.

- innovators may not be the first or the best. They make mistakes and learn from them.

- There may have to be many bad ideas before good ones come along!

- therefore resilience and ability to learn are also important.

Perhaps deep pockets, ability to garner funds, high social / economic capital to start with which translates to access to 'angel' funding are also important!

Education, in particular summative assessments whereby students attain a final grade are therefore not a good measure of entrepreneurship or innovation as the learner is penalised (marked down) for mistakes! We perhaps need to make overt to students, the subjects or topics which are important towards attainment of foundational knowledge and skills, the canon of the discipline. Then the courses whereby project work, portfolios etc. are the mechanisms for assist 'learning by making mistakes', allowing for reflection and review to inform the next stages of learning.

Monday, February 27, 2017

Super-intelligent Artificial Intelligence (AI) - impact on work

Despite TV series like Human and movies – 2001 Space Odyssey, Matrix, Terminator etc. the actual performance of AI is still emergent. However,  we perhaps have an innate fear of non-human intelligence. Especially if we are unable to totally control all aspects of the intelligence.

Here are two videos, providing a more nuanced view on how AI may or may not impact on our lives, in particular, the work that humans do.

First up, a TED talk video from Grady Booch in a 10 minute presentation, delivered late last year. The title, Don't fear super intelligence, is apt. The presentation provides  a good overview of the possibilities and challenges. Optimistic slant similar to book by-  – teaching AI to value human characteristics – ethics, emotion and judgment.
In short, humans are still the directors (we can still unplug the computer at the moment!). 

Second video, another TED talk by David Autor on the topic, of why jobs will not be lost despite advances in technology and AI. This talk also from late last year and is 18 minutes long. Another optimistic viewpoint, creating machines to do work for us, has actually not led to human labour becoming obsolete. The %age of working adults actually increased.

Two aspects support Autor's argument. One 'the O-ring principle' – determines the type of work with do
General principle of work means all work requires a range of skills. Automating some aspect of the work means need for worker to upskill and a different aspect of work becoming the focus. Example bank tellers who now do not have to do the mundane tasks but have become ‘sales’ people and problem solvers. Improvement of tools increases importance of human expertise and creativity.

Secondly the 'never get enough principle' – certain industries did not exist before, but now take up large sectors. Argues less work equates to more leisure. Leisure generates new sectors.
Automation creates wealth by creating more time for us think, create and re-create.
The challenge is not that we will run of work, the challenge is skill mis-match. High skill jobs and low skills jobs increase, but the middle skill jobs are the ones most treathened. Examples used of agreicultural revolution in the US whereby young people were encouraged to complete high skill, increasing skills for manufacturing. Key still through education.

Technology actually magnifies human’s strengths – creativity, innovation and problem solving. We never have enough, so new industries will create new types of work. 40% of Americans in agriculture, now 2% but producing sufficient food for now. 95% decrease in workforce but increase in productivity. 

Again, the importance of education, continual need for workers to up-skill, is reiterated. For education to keep up, the learning of occupational specific skills require distillation into salient 're-configurable' skills as technology shifts job types and needs.

Monday, February 20, 2017

Modern Professional Learners' Toolkit

I have followed Jane Hart's blog for many years. Her Top 100 Tools has been my go to and recommend to others site for a comprehensive list of elearning tools.

Of late, Jane's focus has been on 'learning in the modern workplace' with the book - ' learning in the modern workplace 2017' summarising much of her frameworks and approaches.

This year, a series of articles on the modern workplace learning magazine provide for contributions from other consultants in the field.

So far, articles include:

4 articles by Jane with relevance for me in these two - 'why organisations need to empower employee-led learning'; and 'the modern professional learners' toolkit'.

The former has a good diagram on how individual workplace learner's personal learning space may be constructed.

Two other articles of relevance are by Clark Quinn on experimentation and reflection and by Harold Jarche on mastery takes time and effort.

So, a site with worthwhile resources to follow into the future.

Monday, February 13, 2017

Future of work - not all bad news - some optimism and guidelines

Many of the items we read in the news about the future of work, tend to focus on the ways in which technology will impact on humans in a negative manner. In all endeavours, there are good and bad sides to the story.

For example, this article from Forbes, argues that the future is not that scary. The article does a good job of summarising the salient impacts and approaches the future of work by distilling the personal, organisational and societal impacts. Of importance is the need for individuals to shift from a pathway of education, work and retirement into a cycle of where education, work and leisure are continually 're-invented'. The 're-design' of organisations also includes a need to continually 're-skill' with the 'middle management' layer the ones to most likely be wiped out as jobs which are more 'mundane' disappear and AI replaces 'company wisdom'. Jobs may disappear, but many other jobs well be changed and created as well. There is a call at the end of the article for education and public policy to keep up. These two megaliths have always been slow to change. For education, the recommendation is to ensure vital 'basic skills' including thinking, writing, analysing and maths and science are pre-requisites to completion of formalised schooling. The is then space for 'new education companies' liked Pluralsight, General Assembly, EdX and Coursera - offering small / just-in-time training / educational packages.

On a related note, an article on 'crafting the employee experience' from Deloitte University Press, advocates for the use of 'design thinking' to help employees and employers (i.e. HR). HR becomes 'experience architects' and are tasked with reimagining all aspects of work in their organisations. Aspects include the physical environment; how people meet and interact; the focus of management; and the processes of selecting, training and evaluating workers. Therefore, a focus on individuals and their experience, not just the process of HR.

For many years, education have had 'personal learning environments (PLEs)' as an approach. There are considerable logistical and funding challenges to implementation. The current models based on 'one size fits all' and  'factory production' of outputs (i.e. learners) are being dismantled but only in small pockets of education. So a challenging but exciting time to be in education.

Friday, February 03, 2017

Kevin Kelly - What does Technology Want / The Inevitable - book summaries

In an effort to get to grips with the role of technology, going forward into the future, I worked through two books by Kevin Kelly over the summer ‘break’. In much of the literature and media collation of ‘the future of work’, the role of technology is the all present BIG elephant. Technology is seen to be ‘a good thing’ but also the harbinger of changes to our way of life and the types of work available in the future. In more dystopic and pessimistic versions of the future, the cause of social inequalities and division is how technology changes the availability of 'mundane / unskilled' work. The more able and educated are able to transition rapidly into new work leaving many others behind who are unable to make the shift.

So, firstly, read through Kevin Kelly’s first book, published in 2010. Kelly was editor of Wired and has an interesting background. In effect, coming from an original 'back to basics' philosophy to becoming an early adopter and 'observer' of technology's eventual pervasive influence on our current lives.

What does technology want provides an interesting comparison between natural evolution and the development of technology. The overall approach is optimistic and the main argument is for us humans to understand and maximise the strengths technology provides to augment human potential. The book has been critiqued for imposing a technological view on to biological evolution. There is a 16 minute TED Talk to summarise the book's premises and the concept of 'the technium'. 

The second book published 2015, The Inevitable, is perhaps more readable and applicable to the current context than the first. In this book, Kelly brings evidence from the recent past and the present, to support 12 coalescing ‘verbs’ on how technology impacts on the near future. There is a one hour Youtube video summarising the book's thesis.

These, as recorded in wikipedia are:
1.    Becoming: Moving from fixed products to always upgrading services and subscriptions
2.    Cognifying: Making everything much smarter using cheap powerful AI that we get from the cloud
3.    Flowing: Depending on unstoppable streams in real-time for everything
4.    Screening: Turning all surfaces into screens
5.    Accessing: Shifting society from one where we own assets, to one where instead we will have access to services at all times.
6.    Sharing: Collaboration at mass-scale. Kelly writes, “On my imaginary Sharing Meter Index we are still at 2 out of 10.”
7.    Filtering: Harnessing intense personalization in order to anticipate our desires
8.    Remixing: Unbundling existing products into their most primitive parts and then recombine in all possible ways
9.    Interacting: Immersing ourselves inside our computers to maximize their engagement
10. Tracking: Employing total surveillance for the benefit of citizens and consumers
11. Questioning: Promoting good questions are far more valuable than good answers
12. Beginning: Constructing a planetary system connecting all humans and machines into a global matrix.

As prefaced in the book, there are overlaps between the inevitables. So each does not stand alone and there is synergy between several 'inevitables'.

What is the impact on the 12 inevitables with education, especially vocational education? 

Unlike the compulsory-school and the higher education (preparation for work) sectors, vocational education has the advantage (or disadvantage) of having a foot in the 'formal / structured' learning environment and the more 'informal' learning accessed by people across their lives. Just-in-time learning, micro-learning etc. via mlearning and summarised for example via Jane Hart's blog, already evidence some of the inevitables. 

People can 'subscribe' (belonging as in #1 inevitable) to learning via MOOCs or other methods to 'bespoke' their own personal learning environments. Flowing (#2), Screening (#4) and Accessing (#5) all add to people's learning experiences as they learn collaboratively on a global scale (#6 sharing), interacting (#9) and often have to use tools to filter (#7), remix (#8) to their own requirements. They can, along with others, track (#10) all their activities. Their learning may be supplemented by AIs (cognifying as in #2) and their are opportunities to question (#11) are availed through being part of networks, social media, access to multitudes of 'content' etc. 

The Inevitable provides a good overview of where humanity may be headed. There is importance in understanding how the rapid shifts in technology impact on us. We can then make more informed choices as to what initiatives we support and advance. To use technology for betterment of the human condition rather than just let technology overwhelm our humanity.