Adaptive learning has been around for some time, for example, 'programmed learning' 30 years ago was available mostly through text-based resources and I remember testing out very basic computerised versions. Basically, they were text books with small (usually multiple choice) quizzes and the results from these quizzes, directed you to another part of the text book. The approach was based on behaviourist theories which emphasised scaffolded learning.
Currently, adaptive learning is again and a response to standardised learning promoted in many countries - see previous blog for overview and return of adaptive learning to the list of currently recommended pedagogical approaches. in the 'new' iteration, adaptive learning is defined as the ability of a learning resource to adapt to learners' performance. Edsurge reports advantages and particularly for online learning. Educause article also supports adaptive learning as a means to achieve successful learning. There is a good article by Kerr, P (2015) on the topic providing definitions for '‘individualization, differentiation, personalization’ with adaptive learning being the technology rather than the approach.
With the advent of AI, adaptive learning may be one approach to achieving economies of scale with blended / online learning. Education dive, lists many adaptive learning platforms, with many being publishers of text books and other forms of education resources. Forbes reports an upsurge in adaptive learning platforms with a more up to date list from tech advocate.
Commercial offerings include smartsparrow (free for up to 5 learners and up to 100 learners cost US$15 each); dreambox; knewton; and adaptemy.
Open source platforms include a Harvard and Microsoft collaboration, alosilaps; grapple; and sagefy.