Decisions and conceptions of VET have evolved without the voice of those who practice, learn and assist other to learn those occupations.
These biases have led to low standing and limited requirements of many occupations have led to them being viewed as easy to learn (short term training, low level certs), reduced preparations, measurable outcomes, hierarchical qualifications and craft work being more worthwhile.
Hierachical frameworks do not always capture the demands and complexities of work; non routine work tasks require higher cognitive demands and massiveness and extent of knowledge - a product of situational factors - not given in occupational capacities.
Purpose of VET driven by need for skilled workers, to develop employable capacities of young people, engage young people with nation state. Led to VET as addressing state interests as ordered through centralized and bureaucratic means, with an emphasis on entry level training and consultation with industry / businesses on development of VET curriculum.
But does industry understand the business of education (Billett,2004)? Data from graduate destination surveys (1997) and student satisfaction survey of almost 5000 students (2004) indicate VET educators as having relevant industry content knowledge and that students feel that VET has prepared they for their current work.
Therefore, key objects of VET - occupations and vocations- need to be defined.
Occupations arise from history, culture and circumstances - they are societal facts and practices.
Vocations arise as personal experiences and to which individuals need to assent - they are personal facts and practices.
Worthwhile VET provision focuses on securing students' vocation; engages with and gives discretion to those participation, has curriculum models and processes accommodating local needs; teachers often best placed to make educational decisions. Acknowledge the 3 forms of curriculum (intended, enacted and experienced). Present emphasis on intended needs to be tempered and informed more by the enacted and experienced. Closed the presentation with proposed research questions relevant to the current Australian context, to challenge the current role of VET.
A more eclectic range of presentations today as I pick up on the ones of interest.
Followed by another presentation with Llandis Barratt-Pugh on ‘ the emerging profile of Australian learning and development specialists’. presents a contemporary profile of learning and development professionals. Presented work completed with Steven Hodge and Erica Smith. how as learning development developed from 1992 - 2012. Case study used to build a profile for learning and development professionals, changes in organization, practice and esteem, moved from periphery to core, physical to cognitive and detached to integrated. 790 replies to survey. Key points are change and diversity - continual change leading to diverse approaches to fit into contexts. Need of L & D practitioners to be adaptable, add value, use technologies to keep in touch, partnership approaches and need for business acumen.
Professor Philipp Gonon (University of Zurich) provides the pre lunch keynote. He presents on ‘VET issues and futures: the German and Swiss dual system as a global role model? there is a apprenticeship paradox as in whether apprenticeship is a 'role model' as per 'German)or a 'phase out' model (as traditional apprenticeship). defined the dual model with sites of learning as an interaction between school and workplace with communication between the stakeholders. Apprenticeship refers to a fully workplace based learning approach - and can be a mode of learning or as a specific way of education. In 2008, 80% of German students were in dual-track VET, the other 20% in the academic - baccalurate route into higher ed. Dual VET has both pro and cons. dual VET system often used as an answer to 'social question' to provide smooth transition from school to work, ensure youth engaged. In Germany, dual system is demand driven, broadly accepted and gives access to professional careers. Used Swiss system as a case study to explain concepts of VET systems to trace the emergence and evolution of a dual model VET system. specific cultural preferences and national conditions led to establishment of specific apprenticeship systems for each country. Export of the model to another country is therefore a challenge. Prospects of VET could be VET and apprenticeship are loosing its importance due to the knowledge economy; are dying due to idea of university; and as concept will disseminate and hybridize into another system. So movement of apprenticeship from traditional to 20th century start of formalization and in 21st century merging with general education system.