need to understand that causes are multifarious and one challenge impacts on another, exacerbating the challenge. An example is how poor housing leads to poor health in indigenous students. Continuous poor health may lead to continual hearing infections, impacting on students' learning at school. Poor attendance caused by poor health then makes it difficult to catch up.
Strategies to meet the challenges also need to be innovative and recognize the many impacts. For instance, providing tutorial assistance at tertiary level, along with opportunities for supported 'cadetship' leads to support during study both academically and financially. Cadetships also may lead to later employment.